Spring Boot + SQL Server: CRUD Operations example

In this tutorial, we’re gonna build a Spring Boot CRUD Operations example with Maven that use Spring Data JPA to interact with Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL). You’ll know:

  • Way to use SQL Server maven dependency in Spring Boot
  • How to configure Spring Data, JPA, Hibernate to work with Database
  • How to define Data Models and Repository interfaces
  • Way to create Spring Rest Controller to process HTTP requests
  • Way to use Spring Data JPA to interact with MSSQL Database

Exception Handling:
Spring Boot @ControllerAdvice & @ExceptionHandler example
@RestControllerAdvice example in Spring Boot

Testing: Spring Boot Unit Test for JPA Repositiory with @DataJpaTest

Using other databases:
Spring JPA + H2
Spring JPA + PostgreSQL
Spring JPA + MySQL
Spring Data + MongoDB

Overview of Spring Boot + SQL Server example

We will build a Spring Boot CRUD Rest Apis using Spring Data JPA with SQL Server (MSSQL) Database for a Tutorial application in that:

  • Each Tutotial has id, title, description, published status.
  • Apis help to create, retrieve, update, delete Tutorials.
  • Apis also support custom finder methods such as find by published status or by title.

These are APIs that we need to provide:

MethodsUrlsActions
POST/api/tutorialscreate new Tutorial
GET/api/tutorialsretrieve all Tutorials
GET/api/tutorials/:idretrieve a Tutorial by :id
PUT/api/tutorials/:idupdate a Tutorial by :id
DELETE/api/tutorials/:iddelete a Tutorial by :id
DELETE/api/tutorialsdelete all Tutorials
GET/api/tutorials/publishedfind all published Tutorials
GET/api/tutorials?title=[keyword]find all Tutorials which title contains keyword

– We make CRUD operations & finder methods with Spring Data JPA’s JpaRepository.
– The database will be SQL Server (MSSQL) by configuring project dependency & datasource.

Technology

  • Java 8
  • Spring Boot 2.5 (with Spring Web MVC, Spring Data JPA)
  • Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL)
  • Maven 3.6.1

Project Structure

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-project-structure

Let me explain it briefly.

Tutorial data model class corresponds to entity and table tutorials.
TutorialRepository is an interface that extends JpaRepository for CRUD methods and custom finder methods. It will be autowired in TutorialController.
TutorialController is a RestController which has request mapping methods for RESTful requests such as: getAllTutorials, createTutorial, updateTutorial, deleteTutorial, findByPublished
– Configuration for Spring Datasource, JPA & Hibernate in application.properties.
pom.xml contains dependencies for Spring Boot and SQL Server.

Create & Setup Spring Boot project

Use Spring web tool or your development tool (Spring Tool Suite, Eclipse, Intellij) to create a Spring Boot project with SQL Server maven dependency.

Then open pom.xml and add these dependencies:

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
	<groupId>com.microsoft.sqlserver</groupId>
	<artifactId>mssql-jdbc</artifactId>
	<scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

Configure Spring Boot, JPA, SQL Server, Hibernate

Under src/main/resources folder, open application.properties and write these lines.

spring.datasource.url= jdbc:sqlserver://localhost;databaseName=bezkoder_db
spring.datasource.username= zkoder
spring.datasource.password= 123456

spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect= org.hibernate.dialect.SQLServer2012Dialect
spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto= update
  • spring.datasource.url indicates database, host and database name
  • spring.datasource.username & spring.datasource.password properties are the same as your database installation.
  • Spring Boot uses Hibernate for JPA implementation, we configure SQLServer2012Dialect for SQL Server.
  • spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto is used for database initialization. We set the value to update value so that a table will be created in the database automatically corresponding to defined data model. Any change to the model will also trigger an update to the table. For production, this property should be validate.

Define Data Model

Our Data model is Tutorial with four fields: id, title, description, published.
In model package, we define Tutorial class.

model/Tutorial.java

package com.bezkoder.spring.mssql.model;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;

@Entity
@Table(name = "tutorials")
public class Tutorial {

  @Id
  @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO)
  private long id;

  @Column(name = "title")
  private String title;

  @Column(name = "description")
  private String description;

  @Column(name = "published")
  private boolean published;

  public Tutorial() {

  }

  public Tutorial(String title, String description, boolean published) {
    this.title = title;
    this.description = description;
    this.published = published;
  }

  public long getId() {
    return id;
  }

  public String getTitle() {
    return title;
  }

  public void setTitle(String title) {
    this.title = title;
  }

  public String getDescription() {
    return description;
  }

  public void setDescription(String description) {
    this.description = description;
  }

  public boolean isPublished() {
    return published;
  }

  public void setPublished(boolean isPublished) {
    this.published = isPublished;
  }

  @Override
  public String toString() {
    return "Tutorial [id=" + id + ", title=" + title + ", desc=" + description + ", published=" + published + "]";
  }
}

@Entity annotation indicates that the class is a persistent Java class.
@Table annotation provides the table that maps this entity.
@Id annotation is for the primary key.
@GeneratedValue annotation is used to define generation strategy for the primary key. GenerationType.AUTO means Auto Increment field.
@Column annotation is used to define the column in database that maps annotated field.

Create Repository Interface

Let’s create a repository to interact with Tutorials from the database.
In repository package, create TutorialRepository interface that extends JpaRepository.

repository/TutorialRepository.java

package com.bezkoder.spring.mssql.repository;

import java.util.List;

import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;

import com.bezkoder.spring.mssql.model.Tutorial;

public interface TutorialRepository extends JpaRepository<Tutorial, Long> {
  List<Tutorial> findByPublished(boolean published);
  List<Tutorial> findByTitleContaining(String title);
}

Now we can use JpaRepository’s methods: save(), findOne(), findById(), findAll(), count(), delete(), deleteById()… without implementing these methods.

We also define custom finder methods:
findByPublished(): returns all Tutorials with published having value as input published.
findByTitleContaining(): returns all Tutorials which title contains input title.

The implementation is plugged in by Spring Data JPA automatically.

You can modify this Repository:
– to work with Pagination, the instruction can be found at:
Spring Boot Pagination & Filter example | Spring JPA, Pageable
– or to sort/order by multiple fields with the tutorial:
Spring Data JPA Sort/Order by multiple Columns | Spring Boot

You also find way to write Unit Test for this JPA Repository at:
Spring Boot Unit Test for JPA Repositiory with @DataJpaTest

Finally, we create a controller that provides APIs for creating, retrieving, updating, deleting and finding Tutorials.

controller/TutorialController.java

package com.bezkoder.spring.mssql.controller;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Optional;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.CrossOrigin;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.DeleteMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PutMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestParam;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import com.bezkoder.spring.mssql.model.Tutorial;
import com.bezkoder.spring.mssql.repository.TutorialRepository;

@CrossOrigin(origins = "http://localhost:8081")
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/api")
public class TutorialController {

	@Autowired
	TutorialRepository tutorialRepository;

	@GetMapping("/tutorials")
	public ResponseEntity<List<Tutorial>> getAllTutorials(@RequestParam(required = false) String title) {
		try {
			List<Tutorial> tutorials = new ArrayList<Tutorial>();

			if (title == null)
				tutorialRepository.findAll().forEach(tutorials::add);
			else
				tutorialRepository.findByTitleContaining(title).forEach(tutorials::add);

			if (tutorials.isEmpty()) {
				return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.NO_CONTENT);
			}

			return new ResponseEntity<>(tutorials, HttpStatus.OK);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			return new ResponseEntity<>(null, HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
		}
	}

	@GetMapping("/tutorials/{id}")
	public ResponseEntity<Tutorial> getTutorialById(@PathVariable("id") long id) {
		Optional<Tutorial> tutorialData = tutorialRepository.findById(id);

		if (tutorialData.isPresent()) {
			return new ResponseEntity<>(tutorialData.get(), HttpStatus.OK);
		} else {
			return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND);
		}
	}

	@PostMapping("/tutorials")
	public ResponseEntity<Tutorial> createTutorial(@RequestBody Tutorial tutorial) {
		try {
			Tutorial _tutorial = tutorialRepository
					.save(new Tutorial(tutorial.getTitle(), tutorial.getDescription(), false));
			return new ResponseEntity<>(_tutorial, HttpStatus.CREATED);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			return new ResponseEntity<>(null, HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
		}
	}

	@PutMapping("/tutorials/{id}")
	public ResponseEntity<Tutorial> updateTutorial(@PathVariable("id") long id, @RequestBody Tutorial tutorial) {
		Optional<Tutorial> tutorialData = tutorialRepository.findById(id);

		if (tutorialData.isPresent()) {
			Tutorial _tutorial = tutorialData.get();
			_tutorial.setTitle(tutorial.getTitle());
			_tutorial.setDescription(tutorial.getDescription());
			_tutorial.setPublished(tutorial.isPublished());
			return new ResponseEntity<>(tutorialRepository.save(_tutorial), HttpStatus.OK);
		} else {
			return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND);
		}
	}

	@DeleteMapping("/tutorials/{id}")
	public ResponseEntity<HttpStatus> deleteTutorial(@PathVariable("id") long id) {
		try {
			tutorialRepository.deleteById(id);
			return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.NO_CONTENT);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
		}
	}

	@DeleteMapping("/tutorials")
	public ResponseEntity<HttpStatus> deleteAllTutorials() {
		try {
			tutorialRepository.deleteAll();
			return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.NO_CONTENT);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
		}

	}

	@GetMapping("/tutorials/published")
	public ResponseEntity<List<Tutorial>> findByPublished() {
		try {
			List<Tutorial> tutorials = tutorialRepository.findByPublished(true);

			if (tutorials.isEmpty()) {
				return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.NO_CONTENT);
			}
			return new ResponseEntity<>(tutorials, HttpStatus.OK);
		} catch (Exception e) {
			return new ResponseEntity<>(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
		}
	}
}

@CrossOrigin is for configuring allowed origins.
@RestController annotation is used to define a controller and to indicate that the return value of the methods should be be bound to the web response body.
@RequestMapping("/api") declares that all Apis’ url in the controller will start with /api.
– We use @Autowired to inject TutorialRepository bean to local variable.

Run & Test

Run Spring Boot application with command: mvn spring-boot:run.

tutorials table will be automatically generated in Microsoft SQL Server Database.

Create some Tutorials:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-create-tutorial

MSSQL tutorials table after that:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-create-tutorial-database

Retrieve All Tutorials:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-retrieve-tutorial

Retrieve a Tutorial by Id:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-retrieve-one-tutorial

Update some Tutorials:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-update-tutorial

The table data is changed:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-update-tutorial-database

Find all Tutorials which title contains string ‘ring’:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-search-tutorial

Find all published Tutorials:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-find-tutorial

Delete a Tutorial:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-delete-one-tutorial

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-delete-one-tutorial-database

Delete all Tutorials:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-delete-tutorial

MSSQL database table is clean now:

spring-boot-sql-server-crud-example-mssql-delete-tutorial-database

You can also test this Spring Boot App with Client in one of these posts:

Conclusion

Today we’ve built a Rest API for CRUD operations example with Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) Database using Spring Boot, Spring Data JPA.

We also see that JpaRepository supports a great way to make CRUD operations and custom finder methods without need of boilerplate code.

If you want to add Pagination to this Spring project, you can find the instruction at:
Spring Boot Pagination & Filter example | Spring JPA, Pageable

To sort/order by multiple fields:
Spring Data JPA Sort/Order by multiple Columns | Spring Boot

Handle Exception for this Rest APIs is necessary:
Spring Boot @ControllerAdvice & @ExceptionHandler example
@RestControllerAdvice example in Spring Boot

Or way to write Unit Test for the JPA Repository:
Spring Boot Unit Test for JPA Repositiory with @DataJpaTest

Happy learning! See you again.

Further Reading

Fullstack CRUD App:
Spring Boot + Vue.js example
Angular 8 + Spring Boot example
Angular 10 + Spring Boot example
Angular 11 + Spring Boot example
Angular 12 + Spring Boot example
React + Spring Boot example

More Practice:
Secure Spring Boot App with Spring Security & JWT Authentication
Spring Boot Rest XML example – Web service with XML Response
Spring Boot Multipart File upload example
Spring Boot Pagination and Sorting example

Source Code

You can find the complete source code for this tutorial on Github.

Using other databases:
Spring JPA + H2
Spring JPA + PostgreSQL
Spring JPA + MySQL
Spring Data + MongoDB

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